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NATIONAL BESTSELLER • “Exciting and provocative . . . A tour de force of a book that begs to be seen as well as to be read.”—The Washington Post Book World

World renowned scientist Carl Sagan and acclaimed author Ann Druyan have written a Roots for the human species, a lucid and riveting account of how humans got to be the way we are. Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors is a thrilling saga that starts with the origin of the Earth. It shows with humor and drama that many of our key traits—self-awareness, technology, family ties, submission to authority, hatred for those a little different from ourselves, reason, and ethics—are rooted in the deep past, and illuminated by our kinship with other animals.

Sagan and Druyan conduct a breathtaking journey through space and time, zeroing in on critical turning points in evolutionary history, and tracing the origins of sex, altruism, violence, rape, and dominance. Their book culminates in a stunningly original examination of the connection between primate and human traits. Astonishing in its scope, brilliant in its insights, and an absolutely compelling read, Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors is a triumph of popular science.

From the Publisher

Carl Sagan''s reputation is truly awesome (in the old sense of the word), and his writing is terrific. He won the Pulitzer prize; he hosted the Peabody & Emmy award-winning series Cosmos; and the book of the same title is the best-selling science book every published in the English language. His wife, Ann Druyan, collaborated with him on many projects.

Mr. Sagan made an immediate connection with a lot of people -- his books are written in such accessible language and with so much wit and intelligence that they have changed not only the way we look at science but also the way we look at life.

This book especially touched many people''s lives -- mine included.

A. Krijgsman
Associate Managing Editor

From the Inside Flap

"Dazzling...A feast. Absorbing and elegantly written, it tells of theorigins of life on earth, describes its variety and charaacter, and culminates in a discussion of human nature and teh complex traces ofhumankind''s evolutionary past...It is an amazing story masterfully told."
FINANCIAL TIMES (LONDON)
World renowned scientist Carl Sagan and acclaimed author Ann Druyan have written a ROOTS for the human species, a lucid and riveting account of how humans got to be the way we are. It shows with humor and drama that many of our key traits--self-awareness, technology, family ties, submission to authority, hatred for those a little different from ourselves, reason, and ethics--are rooted in the deep past, and illuminated by our kinship with other animals. Astonishing in its scope, brilliant in its insights, and an absolutely compelling read, SHADOWS OF FORGOTTEN ANCESTORS is a triumph of popular science.

From the Back Cover

"Dazzling...A feast. Absorbing and elegantly written, it tells of theorigins of life on earth, describes its variety and charaacter, and culminates in a discussion of human nature and teh complex traces ofhumankind''s evolutionary past...It is an amazing story masterfully told."
FINANCIAL TIMES (LONDON)
World renowned scientist Carl Sagan and acclaimed author Ann Druyan have written a ROOTS for the human species, a lucid and riveting account of how humans got to be the way we are. It shows with humor and drama that many of our key traits--self-awareness, technology, family ties, submission to authority, hatred for those a little different from ourselves, reason, and ethics--are rooted in the deep past, and illuminated by our kinship with other animals. Astonishing in its scope, brilliant in its insights, and an absolutely compelling read, SHADOWS OF FORGOTTEN ANCESTORS is a triumph of popular science.

About the Author

Carl Sagan served as the David Duncan Professor of Astronomy and Space Sciences and Director of the Laboratory for Planetary Studies at Cornell University. He played a leading role in the Mariner, Viking, Voyager, and Galileo spacecraft expeditions, for which he received the NASA Medals for Exceptional Scientific Achievement and (twice) for Distinguished Public Service.
 
His Emmy- and Peabody–winning television series, Cosmos, became the most widely watched series in the history of American public television. The accompanying book, also called Cosmos, is one of the bestselling science books ever published in the English language. Dr. Sagan received the Pulitzer Prize, the Oersted Medal, and many other awards—including twenty honorary degrees from American colleges and universities—for his contributions to science, literature, education, and the preservation of the environment. In their posthumous award to Dr. Sagan of their highest honor, the National Science Foundation declared that his “research transformed planetary science . . . his gifts to mankind were infinite." Dr. Sagan died on December 20, 1996.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.

Chapter 1
 
ON EARTH AS IT IS IN HEAVEN
 
Nothing lives forever, in Heaven as it is on Earth. Even the stars grow old, decay, and die. They die, and they are born. There was once a time before the Sun and Earth existed, a time before there was day or night, long, long before there was anyone to record the Beginning for those who might come after.
 
Nevertheless, imagine you were a witness to that time:
 
An immense mass of gas and dust is swiftly collapsing under its own weight, spinning ever faster, transforming itself from a turbulent, chaotic cloud into what seems to be a distinct, orderly, thin disk. Its exact center smolders a dull, cherry red. Watch from on high, above the disk, for a hundred million years and you will see the central mass grow whiter and more brilliant, until, after a couple of abortive and incomplete attempts, it bursts into radiance, a sustained thermonuclear fire. The Sun is born. Faithfully, it will shine over the next five billion years—when the matter in the disk will have evolved into beings able to reconstruct the circumstances of its origin, and theirs.
 
Only the innermost provinces of the disk are illuminated. Farther out, the sunlight fails to penetrate. You plunge into the recesses of the cloud to see what wonders are unfolding. You discover a million small worlds milling about the great central fire. A few thousand sizable ones here and there, most circling near the Sun but some at great distances away, are destined to find each other, merge, and become the Earth.
 
This spinning disk out of which worlds are forming has fallen together from the sparse matter that punctuates a vast region of interstellar vacuum within the Milky Way galaxy. The atoms and grains that make it up are the flotsam and jetsam of galactic evolution—here, an oxygen atom generated from helium in the interior inferno of some long-dead red giant star; there, a carbon atom expelled from the atmosphere of a carbon-rich star in some quite different galactic sector; and now an iron atom freed for world-making by a mighty supernova explosion in the still more ancient past. Five billion years after the events we are describing, these very atoms may be coursing through your bloodstream.
 
Our story begins here in the dark, pullulating, dimly illuminated disk: the story as it actually turned out, and an enormous number of other stories that would have come to be had things gone just a little differently; the story of our world and species, but also the story of many other worlds and lifeforms destined never to be. The disk is rippling with possible futures.
 
——
 
For most of their lives, stars shine by transmuting hydrogen into helium. It happens at enormous pressures and temperatures deep inside them. Stars have been aborning in the Milky Way galaxy for ten billion years or more—within great clouds of gas and dust. Almost all the placenta of gas and dust that once surrounded and nourished a star is quickly lost, either devoured by its tenant or spewed back into interstellar space. When they are a little older—but we are still talking about the childhood of the stars—a massive disk of gas and dust can be discerned, the inner lanes circling the star swiftly, the outer ones moving more stately and slowly. Similar disks are detectable around stars barely out of their adolescence, but now only as thin remnants of their former selves—mostly dust with almost no gas, every grain of dust a miniature planet orbiting the central star. In some of them, dark lanes, free of dust, can be made out. Perhaps half the young stars in the sky that are about as massive as the Sun have such disks. Still older stars have nothing of the sort, or at least nothing that we are yet able to detect. Our own Solar System to this day retains a very diffuse band of dust orbiting the Sun, called the zodiacal cloud, a wispy remake of the great disk from which the planets were born.
 
The story these observations are telling us is this: Stars formed in batches from huge clouds of gas and dust. A dense clump of material attracts adjacent gas and dust, grows larger and more massive, more efficiently draws matter to it, and is off on its way to stardom. When the temperatures and pressures in its interior become high enough, hydrogen atoms—the most abundant material in the Universe by far—rare jammed together and thermonuclear reactions are initiated. When it happens on a large enough scale, the star turns on and the nearby darkness is dispelled. Matter is turned into light.
 
The collapsing cloud spins up, squashes down into a disk, and lumps of matter aggregate together—successively the size of smoke particles, sand grains, rocks, boulders, mountains, and worldlets. Then the cloud tidies itself up through the simple expedient of the largest objects gravitationally consuming the debris. The dust-free lanes are the feeding zones of young planets. As the central star begins to shine, it also sends forth great gales of hydrogen that blow grains back into the void. Perhaps some other system of worlds, fated to arise billions of years later in some distant province of the Milky Way, will put these rejected building blocks to good use.
 
In the disks of gas and dust that surround many nearby stars, we think we see the nurseries in which worlds, far-off and exotic, are accumulating and coalescing. All over our galaxy, vast, irregular, lumpy, pitch-black, interstellar clouds are collapsing under their own gravity, and spawning stars and planets. It happens about once a month. In the observable Universe—containing as many as a hundred billion galaxies—perhaps a hundred solar systems are forming every second. In that multitude of worlds, many will be barren and desolate. Others may be lush and fertile, on which beings exquisitely adapted to their several circumstances are growing up, coming of age, and attempting to piece together their beginnings. The Universe is lavish beyond imagining.
 
——
 
As the dust settles and the disk thins, you can now make out what is happening down there. Hurtling about the Sun is a vast array of worldlets, all in slightly different orbits. Patiently you watch. Ages pass. With so many bodies moving so quickly, it is only a matter of time before worlds collide. As you look more closely, you can see collisions occurring almost everywhere. The Solar System begins amid almost unimaginable violence. Sometimes the collision is fast and head-on, and a devastating, although silent, explosion leaves nothing but shards and fragments. At other times—when two worldlets are in nearly identical orbits with nearly identical speeds—the collisions are nudging, gentle; the bodies stick together, and a bigger, double worldlet emerges.
 
In another age or two, you notice that several much larger bodies are growing—worlds that, by luck, escaped a disintegrating collision in their early, more vulnerable days. Such bodies—each established in its own feeding zone—plow through the smaller worldlets and gobble them up. They have grown so large that their gravity has crushed out the irregularities; these bigger worlds are nearly perfect spheres. When a worldlet approaches a more massive body, although not close enough to collide, it swerves; its orbit is changed. On its new trajectory, it may impact some other body, perhaps smashing it to smithereens; or meet a fiery death as it falls into the young Sun, which is consuming the matter in its vicinity; or be gravitationally ejected into the frigid interstellar dark. Only a few are in fortunate orbits, neither eaten, nor pulverized, nor fried, nor exiled. They continue to grow.
 
Beyond a certain mass, the bigger worlds are attracting not just dust, but great streams of interplanetary gas as well. You watch them develop, eventually each with a vast atmosphere of hydrogen and helium gas surrounding a core of rock and metal. They become the four giant planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. You can see the characteristic banded cloud patterns emerge. Collisions of comets with their moons splay out elegant, patterned, iridescent, ephemeral rings. Pieces of an exploded world fall back together, generating a jumbled, odd-lot, motley new moon. As you watch, an Earth-sized body plows into Uranus, knocking the planet over on its side, so once each orbit its poles point straight at the distant Sun.
 
Closer in, where the disk gas has by now been cleaned away, some of the worlds are becoming Earth-like planets, another class of survivors in this game of world-annihilating gravitational roulette. The final accumulation of the terrestrial planets takes no more than 100 million years, about as long compared to the lifespan of the Solar System as the first nine months is relative to the lifetime of an average human being. A doughnut-shaped zone of millions of rocky, metallic, and organic worldlets, the asteroid belt, survives. Trillions of icy worldlets, the comets, slowly orbit the Sun in the darkness beyond the outermost planet.
 
The principal bodies of the Solar System have now formed. Sunlight pours through a transparent, nearly dust-free interplanetary space, warming and illuminating the worlds. They continue to course and careen about the Sun. But look more closely still and you can make out that further change is being worked.
 
None of these worlds, you remind yourself, has volition; none intends to be in a particular orbit. But those that are on well-behaved, circular orbits tend to grow and prosper, while those on giddy, wild, eccentric, or recklessly tilted orbits tend to be removed. As time goes on, the confusion and chaos of the early Solar System slowly settle down into a steadily more orderly, simple, regularly spaced, and, to your eyes, increasingly beautiful set of trajectories. Some bodies are selected to survive, others to be annihilated or exiled. This selection of worlds occurs through the operation of a few extremely simple laws of motion and gravity. Despite the good neighbor policy of the well-mannered worlds, you can occasionally make out a flagrant rogue worldlet on collision trajectory. Even a body with the most circumspect circular orbit has no warrantee against utter annihilation. To continue to survive, an Earth-like world must also continue to be lucky.
 
The role of something close to random chance in all this is striking. Which worldlet will be shattered or ejected, and which will safely grow to planethood, is not obvious. There are so many objects in so complicated a set of mutual interactions that it is very hard to tell—just by looking at the initial configuration of gas and dust, or even after the planets have mainly formed—what the final distribution of worlds will be. Perhaps some other, sufficiently advanced observer could figure it out and predict its future—or even set it all in motion so that, billions of years later, through some intricate and subtle sequence of processes, a desired outcome will slowly emerge. But that is not yet for humans.
 
You started with a chaotic, irregular cloud of gas and dust, tumbling and contracting in the interstellar night. You ended with an elegant, jewel-like solar system, brightly illuminated, the individual planets neatly spaced out one from another, everything running like clockwork. The planets are nicely separated, you realize, because those that aren’t are gone.

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Charles Sherry
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Shadows of our ancestors
Reviewed in the United States on May 22, 2020
A mind stretching look back billions of years and the process of life on the planet is all in this book. Every chapter leads ever closer to the present and shows our connection to every living thing. Could only read a couple chapters at a time before I had to give it a... See more
A mind stretching look back billions of years and the process of life on the planet is all in this book. Every chapter leads ever closer to the present and shows our connection to every living thing. Could only read a couple chapters at a time before I had to give it a rest.
7 people found this helpful
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JR
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
A very informative read. Take your time and enjoy.
Reviewed in the United States on December 13, 2018
I loved this book. It is magnificently written, which is the standard of Carl Sagan. It is pretty dense, but very informative and useful. Take your time and enjoy the read. It probably won''t be very quick, but it is surely enlightening.
12 people found this helpful
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SwingBack
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Maybe the most thought-provoking book I have ever read. I absolutely loved it!
Reviewed in the United States on September 28, 2021
Savor this book slowly because there is a lot to unpack. Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan weave a complex narrative of our genesis - to possibly even our demise - in such clear language illustrated with many anecdotal examples. In conclusion, they argue we are all one, all... See more
Savor this book slowly because there is a lot to unpack. Carl Sagan and Ann Druyan weave a complex narrative of our genesis - to possibly even our demise - in such clear language illustrated with many anecdotal examples. In conclusion, they argue we are all one, all interconnected, with our origins in stardust. And they leave us with a hopeful chance that mankind can pull it together, as in the words of John Lennon: Imagine all the people - Sharing all the world - You - You may say I''m a dreamer - But I''m not the only one - I hope someday you''ll join us - And the world will live as one.
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Chance Spencer
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
One of the best books I''ve ever read!
Reviewed in the United States on June 21, 2013
Even after all the amazing fiction books I''ve ever read, this book by far surpasses any of the other great ones I have ever read. This book literally describes the history of our existence, of all life on earth, from the beginning of our solar system. The great difference... See more
Even after all the amazing fiction books I''ve ever read, this book by far surpasses any of the other great ones I have ever read. This book literally describes the history of our existence, of all life on earth, from the beginning of our solar system. The great difference between this book and some other science book is that Sagan uses his amazing writing skills to make it as though you''re reading a story, a beautiful remarkable story that leads all the way up to you! I pace myself at around one chapter a day just so I can take in all the great new facts and perspectives of life and to also manage other reading I''m doing, but by far, this book literally makes me excited just when I touch it. When you think Sagan can''t get any better, boom! I recommend this book to ANYONE who wants to know the amazing story of us, mankind, or even more, the whole spectrum of life. Sagan might not dive in as much as a college biology student may like, but he does adequately cover numerous processes and interactions between organisms from altruism, sex, and more! Whereas a biology book may describe HOW a certain process works, Sagan goes back to the origins and explains WHY it happened to work like that in the first place. This book is a fascinating ride to the beginnings of our ancestors and I recommend it to anyone!
28 people found this helpful
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Leaderless
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Inciteful and provokes critical thought
Reviewed in the United States on December 27, 2020
Sagan is a mixed bag of both new ideas and ways of approaching evolution, as well as way too detailed in some aspects that buries the more general truth he is trying to bring forth. Many people new to thinking about this subject could get lost in the prose, so it is not an... See more
Sagan is a mixed bag of both new ideas and ways of approaching evolution, as well as way too detailed in some aspects that buries the more general truth he is trying to bring forth. Many people new to thinking about this subject could get lost in the prose, so it is not an introduction to the subject, but a further enhancement of it.

I would recommend the book to those questioning their resistance to grasping the theory, but only if they are grounded in the basics by previous reading or teaching.
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James P. Blok
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Empirical Evidence As a Better Explanation of Organic Life
Reviewed in the United States on September 19, 2021
This book is a rare and exceedingly successful attempt to address many of the most difficult question regarding nature of organic life, including humans, based entirely on scientific, empirical evidence. It avoids the unnecessary baggage of supernatural myths,... See more
This book is a rare and exceedingly successful attempt to address many of the most difficult question regarding nature of organic life, including humans, based entirely on scientific, empirical evidence. It avoids the unnecessary baggage of supernatural myths, superstitions, and meaningless religious dogma. Sagan and Druyan challenge us to consider the complexity and natural wonder of life without succumbing to the usual, arrogant, and quite unsupportable assumption that humans are a special and unique creation for which the entire universe was made.
This book is written in a clear and easily understandable manner. I highly recommend this book for every reader. But especially for those who have found religious explanations of life, the world, and universe unconvincing.
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steven p harrison
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are we greater?
Reviewed in the United States on March 16, 2012
There are those people who think that there is nature and then there is us.Blind to the fact that we are a part of nature.Sagan makes it quite clear that this is the case, as he postulates the difference between our actions and those of our fellow creatures is of degree,... See more
There are those people who think that there is nature and then there is us.Blind to the fact that we are a part of nature.Sagan makes it quite clear that this is the case, as he postulates the difference between our actions and those of our fellow creatures is of degree, not intent.He brings into view many examples of animals displaying characteristics we thought only we where capable of.Even though an avowed pragmatic scientist, sagan looks at things with a philosophers wisdom,sees and appreciates the mystery and interconnectedness of all things and doesnt deny the possiblity of things outside our paradigm.Sagan and fellow thinker adam smith have both come to the conclusion that every species only perceives what needs to be perceived to survive and operate with our fellow mates.which begs the question what is beyond these varying levels of perception for we are not at the forefront.Many animals have greater perception capacities than us, we are not the paragon,just one of many, a highly successfull one but perhaps not forever, it is just our turn.Sagan as always is provocative and introduces great points for thought.Think about what he proposes and you can no longer be comfortable among the mindless drones that sleepwalk through society thinking themselves superior
steven harrison
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Tim Davis
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Have You Ever Wondered Who We Are?
Reviewed in the United States on May 12, 2004
After I read The Dragons of Eden, I learned that Carl Sagan explored more than cosmology. He also explored evolutionary biology-stimulated by his wife, the biologist Ann Druyan. Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors is a book that Sagan and Druyan wrote together. It is much more... See more
After I read The Dragons of Eden, I learned that Carl Sagan explored more than cosmology. He also explored evolutionary biology-stimulated by his wife, the biologist Ann Druyan. Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors is a book that Sagan and Druyan wrote together. It is much more scientifically rigorous and sophisticated than The Dragons of Eden, and deals not with the evolution of the tripartite brain, but on the evolution of consciousness itself. Druyan and Sagan write that we are like babies left in a basket on a doorstep, never knowing and always wondering what our ancestry is. For me, the most influential of the book''s explorations involve the study of the levels of consciousness in other animals, aside from the human animal. Through study after study, many amusing and all interesting, Druyan and Sagan emphasize that the difference between the consciousness of the human animal and other animals is "a difference of degree rather than kind." Indeed, some of the studies indicate that some of the other animals may have consciousness that surpasses in degree that that of the human animal. The book stresses that we will not understand who we are until we view ourselves as part of a continuum, and the book also explorers the history of human resistance to this idea. One or two of the chapters were too difficult for me to understand as a non-scientist, but I was basically able to understand the book while only skimming the difficult chapters about DNA construction and such. It was nice to know that rigorous science was part of the book. This is one of those books that will change your outlook on the world.
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Top reviews from other countries

J.
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Trying to answer the question of how we got into this mess?
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on September 10, 2020
"We are confronted with a witches'' brew of ethnic violence, resurgent nationalism, inept leaders, inadequate education, dysfunctional families, environmental decay, species extinctions, burgeoning population, and increasing millions with nothing to lose. The need to...See more
"We are confronted with a witches'' brew of ethnic violence, resurgent nationalism, inept leaders, inadequate education, dysfunctional families, environmental decay, species extinctions, burgeoning population, and increasing millions with nothing to lose. The need to understand how we got into this mess and how we get out seems more urgent than ever." Published in 1992 and since then the rise of kleptomaniacal, murderous world leaders, tyrannical states, dictators, terrorism, ethnic, racial and cultural intolerance and the current pandemic seems we are not willing to recognise that we hold 99.9% of our DNA in common and related to one another....perhaps that is the problem........we do not like our relatives....if this is true then the information in this book will not be acted upon to build a more worthwhile and valued global civilisation than the one that currently exists......that is really tragic ...
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Lilac Lamb
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Excellent
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on June 27, 2020
Book arrived in good time and exactly as described.
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Aileen
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Five Stars
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on December 4, 2017
Brilliant
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stuartnufc
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Brilliant
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on February 7, 2018
Brilliant book by a total genius
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Puffi
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Great
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on September 4, 2018
Excellent
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